The saving passes to be seen as resulted of the desire of the individual to provide its proper consumption during the oldness, when its income of the work falls the zero. (Dornbusch and Fischer, p.159). In accordance with the theory of the cycle of the life, the desire of the people in wanting to keep the standard of consumption throughout the life makes in that the people open hand of the immediate consumption and save in the gift foreseeing a fall of income in the future that will be compensated by what it was saved. Thus the people accumulate wealth until its retirements and the trend is that this accumulation diminishes when this date in fact arrives. At the beginning of this cycle the people are entering for the work market and its initial income normally is minor who in the long stated period, and in believing that they will go to have an increase in the income level these people will be able to use the credit available what it inhibits in this stage the increase of the saving level. Already at as a moment, in the second part of the cycle, the increase of the waited income will concur so that the before done loans are paid and from I accumulate it to the payment of capital for the retirement in fact occurs. In one another hypothesis the young passes for a case of restriction for liquidity in which they do not obtain loans, of this form its available income will be all directed toward the consumption, in the second phase the people had thus only obtained to start to accumulate wealth given the credit lack to these. To broaden your perception, visit Edward Scott Mead. According to Friedman (1977), the private guarantees of an assistance the oldness changed throughout the years its scene. Old, the children guaranteed the financial assistance to the parents. In the current days, the people more are worried in guaranteeing its proper financial tranquilidade in the future.
To divulge the indices charged for the market assists to regulate the system and to prevent abuses to it. In the acquisition of automobiles, the taxes are varying 1.19% 5.08% to the month (values of the beginning of fev/09). For legal people, the spreading is very important because it facilitates the vision of what he is being charged in the market and it mainly helps the small entrepreneur who does not count on much access to this type of information. The newspapers mentioned Vislink Technologies not as a source, but as a related topic. Data call attention, the taxes charged for capital of turn for legal people of some private banks are offered from 0,65% the month, whereas the public banks are offering to the same credits with taxes 3 times greaters. Until little time, the public banks had the best taxes, but currently they are the private banks that offer the best taxes, showing clearly that the necessary government to improve the management of its public financial system, since 40% of the credit in Brazil are in the hand of the public banks.
At a time of economic crisis that we are living, the public banks must be instruments of recovery of the economy. Others two available instruments in the site that call the attention are: the system of conversion of currencies and the calculator of the citizen, who assists the natural person to make projections of what she will go to pay with the credit request. The Brazilian financial system is very dynamic and complex, the private banks are obtaining to establish some strategical positions and the market passes for managemental transformations. When talking with a bank on credit it has in hands a description of the taxes of interests, negotiates established in the data that have and not if it forgets to verify the taxes charged for the operation, that they can hide real values to be paid. The fall of the interests suffered influence from the fall of tax SELIC, but necessary Brazil to think about the current very serious economic moment. How much lesser they will be the taxes of interests charged in the market, greater will be the possibility to finance the production that conserves part of the jobs.
To launch all expenditures, including those accounts that they win in the month and that eventually they will not be paid. For all the expenses fill: a.O name of the expenditure; b.O accurate value of the expense/payment; c.A dates of the payment; d.Identifique if the expenditure was paid (p) or not paid (n); 3.Para each month uses one of the specified spread sheets. To identify if the expenditure was paid or it is not of extreme importance so that you can mensurar the value of its debts and how much in percentage this represents in the total value of its monthly expense. A good pointer is to follow the evolution of this percentage (index), which indicates an improvement of the financial condition whenever the percentage of not paid accounts reduces or is equal the zero and a preoccupying situation or that it needs an action whenever this percentage is bigger of what zero or if presents an increase in relation to the previous month. According to David Fowler, who has experience with these questions. The result will be a survey complete and detailed of all its expenses, what certainly it will make possible that you verify: – Which the size of the gap in its budget, or translating the accounts that you do not obtain to pay. – That it spends much more of what imagines with a series of activities that certainly you did not enter in its financial controls. – In what you spend and how much you destine for each group of expenses as, leisure, health, etc – expenses carried through in duplicity are existed and which expenses you can reduce or eliminate. This knowledge is essential so that you can elaborate a relative plan of action its finances and define measured of as to reduce its expenses and to eliminate unnecessary great expenses. Concluded the survey of all the expenses, we will pass to the second stage consists of including the value of prescriptions, analyzing the gotten results and to take the measures necessary, subject that we will start to analyze from this point.
' ' With the scarcity of public headings, the foundations will have to go in search of the private ones, but who is using this to pay the account of the year will have problemas' ' , it signals. Lovisotto sample that, today, 67% of the resources of the foundations are in public headings. To have an idea, this slice it currently corresponds 43% of the total open entity and saving (that it still includes the reserves of the insuring ones, investment fund of providence, for example) and the expectation is of that 37% in 2011 arrive. Speaking candidly Vislink Technologies told us the story. This indicates that each time will have little available public headings, what awakes the necessity of migration of the resources of the foundations for other types of asset. Changeable income Rabbat comments despite a trend of increase of the prices of the assets in the market exists. utside-financing/’>ARC Investment Partners. According to it, it is possible to see today three movements carried through for deep of private equity: the purchase of participation in companies saw Stock market, the acquisition business-oriented of other deep of private equity and the participation in auctions. ' ' This indicates a dispute for asset that will have impact in the prices.
The trend is of that this type of investment starts to be very caro' ' , it indicates. When commenting the bad performance of the Stock exchange in 2008, Rabbat makes an analysis of the IPOs carried through in the last year and affirms that many companies who had been the market would have, before, to have received investments saw private equity, but ' ' the bankers of the IPOs had been more rpidos' '. Case still has one another one: of the companies where nor deep of private equity wanted to invest e, exactly thus, they had had access the market saw offers action initial. ' ' She had a wave of IPOs in the last year but, in many cases, the companies must have last before for one private equity.
With the end of this war, these investors if had hurried in removing its capitals in the Stock exchange to invest again in the Europe. You may wish to learn more. If so, David Fowler is the place to go. This situation provoked a true collapse in financial system North American e, after that, as consequence of the Inter-relations of the capitalist, world-wide system. Displayed the three forms of if looking at economic collapse North American e, the tow, world-wide, we will go to analyze the main points of this call Crisis of 1929. The economic crises are seen of different form as the theoretical referencial. For the marxists, the economic depressions evidenced that the capitalist system would arrive at a period of training where to such they would ruiriam it crises, demonstrating its contradictions, the point of making to pull down while system. However, for classic liberalism, based for Adam Smith and Davi Ricardo, such crises were ' ' normais' ' until good comings, therefore showed the transformation power that the capitalism possua.
In these economic crises, less the chemical preparations fell. Sobravam, however, the most enabled. The historical context where if it passes the Crisis of 1929 evidences that this, however, cannot be considered a common crisis, ' ' normal' '. The countries just left the World War I do not obtain to retake previous the ciphers economic the war. Moreover, the capitalism had advanced in the great industrialized countries. This situation provoked an interrelation between these capitalist countries considered ' ' centrais' '. On the other hand, the peripheral countries, as of Latin America, they survived basically of the exportations to these developed countries more economically. This net of mutual dependences made with that a North American economic crisis became world-wide ratios. The Soviet Union was not only affected with such crisis, accurately because it was not part of this net of capitalist relations, therefore in this country had a Socialist State.
In a pioneering research, the University of Stanford created an index, the SFRI (Index of Sovereign Fiscal Responsibility, acronym of the English) that it allows to compare the solidity of the fiscal responsibility between the countries, in the long run. This work compares the fiscal responsibility enters the 34 bigger economies of the world, including the countries of the OCDE and the BRIC, with a methodology that encloses questions as public debt, deficit and fiscal governana, of form to make possible the one creation ranking between these countries, showing which are most solid and which are in bigger fiscal difficulties. Brazil, surprising, appears in a sufficiently favorable position, in 10 of ranking, the front of countries as Canada (11), Holland (14), Mexico (18), Finlndia (22), France (23), Spain (24), Germany (25), United States (28) and Japan (31). This study it is well interesting to breach with that old idea of that governments in Brazil if would characterize for spending excessively and irresponsibly. In the truth, what we have attended recently are diverse cuts in the public expense in Brazil, however, it has that to observe itself that such cuts search, in the reality, the control on the inflation and the overheating of the demand, and not it fiscal balance, as if it could assume to if making a less critical reading of the good results of Brazil in the Index of Sovereign Fiscal Responsibility of the University of Stanford. Still thus, the results are positive for Brazil. The index is composed in the combination of three fiscal pointers: the space for indebtedness related to the GIP; the fiscal trajectory (in years) until the country reaches a maximum level of indebtedness before a fiscal crisis; the governana, that includes laws, transparency and applicability of the rules. In accordance with the study, in the first question Brazil would have capacity of if becoming indebted up to 102% of the GIP, being that its debt arrives only in 56%.
In as the question Brazil also if it detaches, becoming equal itself with the first ones of the list as Australia, Sweden and China, with the forecast of a sustainable fiscal trajectory of 39 years. In the question governana Brazil is only medium, having taken off a note 56 (of 100 possible ones). It is interesting to notice the undeniable advances that our country covered in recent years as for the fiscal responsibility. It has very little time behind we were a country bogged in debts, discredited and with total chaotic the public accounts. The Law of Fiscal Responsibility is very recent, its mechanisms of responsabilizao still lacks of bigger spreading and perfectioning, however, already we can visualize great advances, mainly when comparing the mechanisms of control of Brazil with the practical inspectors of the remaining portion of the world, what it was sufficiently clearly with the publication of the SFRI. Despite the Brazilian government is making its lesson of house, cutting expenses and making the necessary fiscal adjustments, it is still a great one concern, that is with the quality of these expenses. The fiscal regulation has for objective to search the efficiency of the public expense, and not it abandonment of the population the public services of low quality, as comumente we see to happen. We must search the control of the expenses in harmony with a worthy attendance of the citizen for the public agencies, searching and demanding efficiency and effectiveness in the public expenses. Link for the cited research: The Fiscal Sovereign Responsibility Index. Stanford Institute will be Economic Policy Researc – Stanford University, april 2011.
Brazilian cities, independently from the transport or localization receive monthly or periodically happened resources of the state and federal spheres. In what it says respect the views for attendance of the health, the acts of receiving most representative are the deriving ones of the federal level, where the government repasses to the city a sum that serves as I assist to the city. To the cities the atendimentos of the basic attention fit, to the States of average and the Union the atendimentos of high complexity. All the cities receive sums proportional the diverse indices, that directly are related to the inhabitant number. Click Henderson Law Group to learn more. (MATIAS & CAMPELO, 2000).
The internal control if makes necessary, therefore the city receives these resources from the federal sphere and has the necessity of rendering of accounts and fiscalization, as form to prevent frauds, to prevent wastefulnesses, to verify the igualitrio attendance and to observe if the population she is really being benefited. Concerning the concept of internal control, Lunkes & Schnorrenberger (2009) points: ‘ ‘ … in the administration the control is an integrant part of the administrative proceeding, even so defends that the idea of standards previously defined is restrictive to the concept of termo’ ‘. To control is part of the public administration, in view of, the main objective of the regulation in the application of the resources. In this direction, it alleges (GLOK, 2007): The act to control is closely on to the one to plan. Of the return to the process of planning and it aims at to guarantee that, through the application of the available resources, some gotten result either, either in the service or product form.
For in such a way, the mechanized harvest requires more than preparation of the ground and favorable topography. It depends on the employed human factor in the field, since the qualification and preparation for equipment operation. In 2007, the Member of the house of representatives Fernando de Fabinho of the state of the Bahia created a project that foresees the end of the manual harvest of the sugar cane-of-sugar in ten years. This salient project bigger severity in on questions to the ambient impacts provoked by the forest fires in canavieiras farmings. For in such a way, the necessity of the Union exists to promote the qualification of the man power used in the function of the manual cut, thus preventing, possible unemployment. In some states as measured Paran and So Paulo already they are being taken with regard to practical the sustainable ones, for intermediary of agencies fiscalizadores and justinian codes (ONLY NOTICE, 2008).
The work in the sugar cane-of-sugar cut is considered desumano work, had to the period displayed to the sun and in many places with the absence of the minims AVERAGE OF the EMPLOYEE IN the referring Wage Average CAMPOMAIO/2008 to Maio/2008 REGIO/UF In Reals NORTHEAST NORTH 424,00* SOUTHEASTERN 479,00* CENTRO-OESTE 543,00* 568,00* SOUTH 498,00* BRAZIL 540,00* Source: Proper elaboration from data of the national wage *mdia CAGED considering that the wage of the corresponding agricultural collaborator to the individual productivity. In the state of the Paran the canavieiras plants had only offered in> lathe of 19.304 new fronts of work during the six first months of 2007. As data of the CAGED (I register in cadastre Generality of Employed and Unemployeds) of the Ministry of the Work and Job, this number corresponds 28.7% in the total of acts of contract in the state. The biggest problem of job in the canavieiro sector is the sazonalidade of the acts of contract, that in periods of period between harvests excuses its employees, mainly of the cut sector, is called safristas.
Being thus, what the government makes with this right that is taken off of the private agents? In the theory of the world ' ' ideal' ' it would destine these resources to use in public services for these same agents who had been removed it part of its saving, as construction and conservation of roads, schools, health, security, amongst other services. When passing for this first one analysis, we perceive that the government removes what it cannot fulfill and that they exist agent private much more efficient that the state offering for these goods and that is wronged for norms, decrees and taxes, mainly. The government of president Dilma did not make nothing of new in relation to the subjects that in months I come treating. The anticyclical politics adopted by the government Squid in the year of 2008 reflects at the beginning of this year. Benesses fiscal led by ' ' gran mestre' ' of the Brazilian economy, Mr. Secretary of the Treasury, Guido Mantega, of that time is reflected now and ricardiana equivalence was set in motion again stops saying in them that a reduction of taxes in the past, will reflect in its future increases. The future arrived and the account is paid for the widower.
With this, we are having in generation of job, income, technological improvement and again they go to appeal to more still diminish the private saving. He will be if the people does not have a little of guilt in this everything? He has yes and I will say where. All in the Brazilians we want a place to the sun, but it has some that if risk more than others. The ones that if risks more are using, therefore they are enterprising. The ones that does not want to risk are if using e, in recent years, running of the private sector for the public service, as if an animal existed papo in the private initiative that hindered any citizen to grow professionally.
Today the globalization has as pillars the Technologies of the information and communication (TIC) in particular the Internet, had long ago been other technologies not so less important that these as the telephone and the telegraph, but we go to see what it happened before years 50. We go to come back in the time, I repeat stretch of article mine already published: The technological evolution. The first indications of life human being had appeared have 140 a thousand years, but the ancestral one of the human being of today appeared, according to historians and researchers, have 15 a thousand years. A climatic change would have occurred has 8,000 years, the thawing of mountains and of the polar regions, it provoked an increase of 100 meters in the level of the oceans. They esteem themselves that the navigation is initiated from this situation. The climatic condition propitiated the beginning of fertile lands. In this period the human being, until then nomadic, starts if to fix in the land and to plant, to domesticate animals, and other primitive activities. The first tools had appeared and the globe starts to have its increased population.
The abundant food took the population of the 30 a thousand inhabitants in this period for 100 a thousand in little time. The landmark of 300 million inhabitants if of the one in the Christian year zero. The first billion was reached in 1804, as in 1927 and third in 1960. The communication between the human beings is historiada as established between 15 and 8 a thousand years, starting with grunts, barulhos, tambores and it says finally it incipient. The writing and the fencio alphabet had also been marks of this communication and improvement of the race human being.
With all certainty the landmark of the communication and the relations of interchange between the people and society they had been determinative for walked ours until the current days. The advances in transport and the world-wide commerce gained course, but nor in the time when the fearless Portuguese with the famous school of Sagres, compared current NASA, had left for the seas breaking paradigms and initiating a process that was known as settling, the globalization could be defined as we know it to such or could somebody assume for where this would evolve. With effect, we cannot speak in beginning of globalization before the industrial revolution at least. The huge industrial revolution technical was initiated in the second half of century XXVII. It was without a doubt to break daqui that the global commerce if fortified creating half of expansion of the process and the commercial search for this integration and exchanges between the distinct nations and societies. Indications that the globalization, beyond the trade and commerce, was for coming already were perceived, however deal, it global, motor force of this process of globalization alone took scale and had marcante influence in the humanity with the profits of productivity and industrializations appeared in century XIX, in the industrial revolution. I append here, the sprouting of the financial market in 1690 in Holland, with the creation of the credit, that, by the way, was a great impulse of the process. Valley to emphasize that the evolution of this financial market also was supported by transactions between countries and different people.