Author: Evelyn Vaughan


Organizational Knowledge Creation

June 21, 2011

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And here are three observations as follows: When it comes to knowledge, unlike information, it's beliefs and commitments. Knowledge is a function of a position, perspective or specific intent. Knowledge, unlike information, is action. Knowledge, like information, meaning is dependent on specific contexts and relationships. In his Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1999) assume the traditional definition of knowledge that you are considered a justified true belief, however, clarified that although traditional epistemology emphasizes the abstract nature, static and non-human knowledge, typically expressed in propositions and formal logic, knowledge is a dynamic human process of justifying personal belief in pursuit of truth.

As a result, both information and knowledge are elements of context-specific and are relational, because they depend on the situation and are dynamically created in social interaction of individuals, on the other hand, when interacting in a social and historical context people share information with which to build a social knowledge that makes up a reality and this, in turn, influences their judgments, their behavior and attitude, (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1999). From this perspective, it is important to recognize that information is one of the epistemological reference for the construction of knowledge, it will add the creativity and thought processes, as well as other information from the context that is not organized or split the experiences and perceptions. For there to be knowledge must combine three factors: information, experience and interaction with the context. It's not just the ability to relate in a highly structured, data, information and knowledge of a particular object.

The Buyer

May 11, 2011

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And the cabinet blocked the goods due to lack of space calculations, the buyer will buy a maximum of something for what came, not "remembering" that he actually "has long had to buy so-and-so, and, incidentally, like a long time try it now, not to mention the impulse purchases. In our shop windows with four levels of calculations, they find what they need. And all with individual lighting. Series showcases the common name Vena, developed as a result painstaking work with trade organizations, is becoming more and more adherents. Four levels of illumination (with the possibility of a fifth level) can accommodate the most extensive range in the immediate vicinity of the buyer.

The use of glass in a refrigerated versions of windows allows you to accurately keep the desired temperature in the volume of the cabinet and frees staff from having to shift the night perishable goods in coolers. Uniform design neutral corner and refrigerated display cases leads to grudging respect of buyers coming into the store, and causes confidence in the quality of purchased products. Now, with such equipment, owner of a shop solves the problem of presenting their products to buyers. However, developers do not stand still, the work is carried out both in technology and to expand the range. We hope that in near future we will be able to offer a more interesting developments in the field of commercial equipment. Confectionery showcase. Confectioner's shop – it is the special case when not working technology sales, used for trade other products (groceries, restaurants, etc.).


Filling Line

May 7, 2011

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In ancient times, when people began to move to a sedentary life, under its own weight of grape bunches separated juice and strayed into the warmth. Something like this was born the first wine over 7,000 years ago. Since then, much has flowed water, and the evolution of winemaking has moved far ahead. Wine is a living product, "the technology of winemaking dictated throughout time conditions and capabilities of its storage. Tanks for wine must remain its valuable properties, were easy to transport and trade.

Since the beginning of winemaking and to this day, for this task were different solutions. First it was an amphora, which seals the clay or resin tubes, pitchers, skins, etc. From Egypt in about the 11 thousand bc, the culture of wine came to Crete and other Aegean islands, and then spread to mainland Greece. Ancient technology of production and storage of guilt significantly different from today. The Romans adopted many of the winemaking tradition of the Greeks, but there are new technologies.

Have been improved methods of fermentation and aging wines in clay amphorae. Having conquered Europe, the Romans brought the culture of wine conquered peoples: the Gauls (now French), Germans, Iberians (Spaniards), England. It is believed that it was the Romans with the Gauls have created a wooden barrel to facilitate trade and transport wine over long distances. During the Middle Ages with the advent of special wooden barrels for aging wine, wine production technology is similar to the modern. At the same time at the tables began to appear and glass bottles.


Creating a Web Site

May 4, 2011

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"Creation – progress – output" – these 3 stages is any more or less successful site. Of course, there are a lot of intermediate work, the importance of each of which does not minimize, but, nevertheless, in these 3 paragraphs hidden meaning of the whole site building. To them we do and consider. For example take any business website, which aims – to achieve specific results, rather than extracting a fictitious moral benefits directly to owner of the site or for visitors who are not monetized. In order to get customers or profit from the site (ie the very same impact), it is necessary first of all, this site is created. In creating and developing web sites includes a wide range of works, the most basic of them – creating a unique design, advertising, or "selling" the text, its placement on the hosting, installation of cms, if necessary, usability audits and plenty of other, less significant works. Suppose, a site you already have.

Now you need to make about this website, Internet users have learned. The vast majority of people who own use Internet search engines, which means that minute Yandex and Google handle tens of thousands of requests. Is it any wonder that it is the search engines – the key to success of any site. Yes, making the site – it is really only half the battle, because the site is still needed unleash! Roughly speaking, you need to make sure that the user who enters into a desired search engine query such as "Flowers of St. Petersburg", was the first lines of the issue, to which he always clicks, it is Your site if it is a site for the delivery of flowers. A user who visited the site – almost bought these flowers. Literate and thoughtful content site's appearance should make his final decision and make a purchase. Remember that only a combination of professional-the first two paragraphs sum to the third – the result, returns.

Many amateurs, who rely on their promotion to other people, blame those in idleness and Trade air ", not fully realizing that the promotion and advancement – it is very complex and often unpredictable process. Promotion of the site contains a lot of nuances, which, however, is not so easy to understand how the need to create a colorful design for the site. The main problem "" that they are forced to adapt to the algorithms of search engines that are constantly changing. This is the most direct way may affect on the work of experts on promotion. An ordinary person can understand them only when he tries to tackle the promotion of your site, and then one day all his months of work go down the drain.


Salaries Financiers

April 30, 2011

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Specialists Personnel Center "UNITY" conducted an analysis of changes in wages of financial professionals since the onset of the crisis to date. According to them, from all the top positions only to the accountant level wage has not changed significantly. As with the fall of 2008, most employers offer from 28000 to 35000 rubles. However, other specialists have lost an average of 30-35%. Wages of some employees was reduced gradually. For example, the upper limit of compensation specialist in International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) gradually dropped from 115,000 to 95,000 rubles.

In this case, the proposal now begin with 45000 rubles, while a year ago, started with mark of 70,000 rubles. Dynamics of indicators of other specialties differs sharply reduced. Thus, the average salary economist last fall was 42,000 rubles, to date – 30000 rubles (minus 30%), and fall recorded in March this year, just after the end of the fiscal year. At the same time reduced and compensation for chief accountants. Until the spring average was kept at a level of 75,000 rubles, and in March had already reached 55,000 rubles. Indicators of changes in wages auditor may illustrate one of the trends in recruitment market crisis. "Despite the decline in demand for staff and the corresponding drop in wages, professionals are still at a price – says the head of recruitment department "Finance Personnel Center" unity "Tatyana Chernysheva. – The level of compensation specialist audit firm, the demand for services which today are higher, largely depends on the volume and complexity.

A qualified employee is becoming more clients and income levels rise. But the less experienced can not claim even to pre-crisis average salary. This tend to confirm the results of the study. So, if before the amount of compensation for auditors varied little (60000-65000 rubles), now the lower limit of the interval fell to 45,000 rubles, and top up to 80000 rubles. " By Materials Research Center "UNITY"


Return Materials

April 26, 2011

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Output volume and value of recyclable materials shall be installed in the design and construction documents for facilities repair and reconstruction on the basis of the norms of output materials and products. From the total output should be allocated to materials and products that should be recycled at this facility. During the dismantling of structures and facilities of a special commission consisting of representatives of the customer, contractor and the project organization (major repairs and reconstruction), with logistical decision-makers to make technical examination of the object specified amount of output of materials and products under the design-budget documentation. Upon completion of disassembly, an instrument of arbitrary shape, which includes the name of the material obtained from the dismantling and suitable for re- use, their quantity, the percentage of life, the assessed value. Act is signed by members of the commission. On the basis of the act shall be made in the prescribed manner appropriate changes to construction documents (Reconstruction and major repairs) and shall be repayable statement amounts to the customer. Estimating the cost of return of materials produced at a cost of similar material in the prices in force at the time of evaluation, adjusted for the percentage of wear of materials. Allocation of value added tax on such materials are not produced.

Submissions from disassembly (hereinafter – the return materials) are the property of customer – fixed assets and accounts to its balance (unless otherwise provided under the Contract) for the appraised value of reflection on the debit account 10 "Materials" sub-8 "Building Materials", in correspondence with the credit account 98 "Deferred revenue". According to the instructions on the reuse of products, equipment and materials (VSN 39-83 (p)) and the Regulations on Procedure of dismantling buildings and structures, implementation of building designs and materials, and assignment of costs for construction projects and facilities which are continuation of the construction in accordance with developed industry and regional efforts to reduce of uncompleted construction in 2003-2005 found economically viable, approved by the Ministry of Architecture, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Economy of 21.07.2003 12/107/158, reusable considered materials and products derived from the dismantling of structures and the dismantling of engineering equipment and used again, including after their recovery or recycling, facilities repair and construction, as well as sold to the public or recyclable as a secondary raw material. The expediency of re-use of materials at the sites of repair and construction by others on the basis of feasibility study (taking into account the cost of restoration and adaptation). If the materials, products resulting from dismantling are subject to repeated use at the facility, after bringing them in suitable condition, they are equal to materials of the customer and should not debit the contractor for balance sheet accounts. These materials are considered a contractor for off-balance account 003 "Materials accepted for processing, regardless of method of transmission of the customer (Either under the act during the survey, either by registration bill to transfer the values of Th-2 while preserving the property rights of the customer) and are not included in the volume of work performed for taxation. Cost return the materials included in the contractor only the amount of work performed for statistical reporting.


Olympic Games

April 20, 2011

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We have the same right to broadcast the Olympics are two federal channel, and one private – ntv +. Value of the rights to broadcast the Olympic Games in Sochi is still unknown, but some experts suggest that the amount will be exceed 1 mlr. $ Planning to get from Sochi Olympics $ 125 million on the sale of tickets the organizers probably did not make mistakes, it is only the opening ceremony of the 2008 Olympic Games the most expensive tickets in Beijing will cost around 637 dollars, and the cheapest about $ 25. If we look at history, we, as a rule, each successive Olympic Games are more expensive earlier. At the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 was initially planned to spend $ 5.5 billion, with time the figure exceeded the mark of $ 7 billion in his time at the 2012 Olympic Games in London, planned to spend as no more than 4,5 billion dollars, but now the minimum strap costs have risen to 9.5 billion dollars. Special place recently in articles by the cost of the Olympics is safe: only the additional costs of the 2012 London in this part will be approximately $ 500 million. And this is not an isolated example, tensions in the world makes its own orders: in 1998 in Nagano, almost six thousand police officers guarded the order in Sydney, two years later engaged in the protection of over 25 thousand people. Safety Games in Salt Lake City cost $ 400 million in public order and security then included not only the army and security services, but also forest rangers.


Financial Form

April 20, 2011

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His negative impact, however, can occur in conditions of overproduction. Particularly noticeable is the impact of inflation. New means of payment by entering credit into circulation, enhance, and without of overweight money needed for treatment. Credit regardless of their social side performs the functions of regulation of the total cash flow, redistribution of funds to conditions for their subsequent return, the accumulation of temporary surplus funds. What is a 'loan for the development of small business'? Classification of loan is traditionally taken to implement for several basic features, the most important of which include categories lender and borrower, as well as the form in which it is given credit loan.

On this basis, we can distinguish the following forms of credit. 1. Bank loan. One the most common forms of credit relations in the economy, the object of which appears in the transfer of loan funds directly. Available exclusively to specialized credit and financial institutions licensed to carry out such operations from the central bank. In the borrower may make only legal persons, the instrument of credit is a credit relationship contract or loan agreement. Income on this form of the loan comes in the form of interest on loans, the rate is determined by agreement of the parties taking into account the average rate of bids for a given period and specific circumstances lending.

2. Commercial credit. One of the earliest forms of credit relations in the economy, spawned a paper circulation and thus actively contributing to the development of non-cash turnover, has practical expression in the financial and economic relations between entities in the form of sales of products or services with deferred payment.


The Borrower

April 19, 2011

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It turns out that as long as credit to the customer's application simply someone did not reach his hands. and client for a long time telling "scary tales" about the bank's security service. The borrower may also not be good for weeks carrying the bank the documents, without which further work will not go, and when will – immediately sit down to the manager for his neck and will be with tenacity to ask the question: When? All this happens all the time (even in the showroom, where the next table sits a number of banks), as a rule, for one reason. Client communicates with a person who works is not very long and expectations, the manager is left alone with a whole pack of different services that will make the maximum so as not to give credit to the man who can not return it. Right? Yes, but that desire quickly turns into verbalism, when the client is perceived as falling or not falling under strictly defined framework of the borrower, who somehow decided that deserves credit.

Round of the third – the unfulfilled promises. From the bank passes the crown series attacks: "Yes, the credit committee has passed, all is well, that's just you need from the surety, be sure to Kiev registration and official income of not less than $ 2000. And a down payment instead of 10% and 20%. " From such strikes the borrower, staggers, goes to Teach corner to rest. At this moment a customer desire to receive long-awaited car is replaced by a desire to see a white towel in the ring.


Profitable Contribution

April 16, 2011

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First, you need to decide for what we could do with metal deposits. Imagine if the investor thinks that the goal to gain the maximum funds from investing surplus funds in precious metals, then, apparently, should be put on the precious metals with the highest resistance rates. In this case, however, need to recognize the need to monitor the market quotations of precious metals, as well as its defining components. This will allow to minimize the risk of loss in case of collapse in world prices for the chosen metal contribution. Other aspects affecting the decision are the interest rate of the metal deposit and the conditions of the bank when opening and maintenance of metal deposits.

Currently, however, banks are interested in attracting such investments, so the conditions are usually the most suitable for investors is when you open the metal deposits. Metal deposits and Earn revenue contributor to metal deposits is composed of two elements: the interest that accrues on the amount of bank deposit of the metal and increase the price of precious metals in the world. For those who wants to be a successful investor and make a profit, there are metal deposits. If the course has changed the value of precious metals on the day following the opening of the metal deposit, the term can be even on the same day to collect the funds with the same interest generated by the price change. From Russian banks, metal deposits, Sberbank and offers several other banks.





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