Lathes are used mainly for processing of solids of revolution by removing them from the chip when turning. Lathe – one of the oldest machines, which were established on the basis of drilling machines, boring machines and other groups. Lathes up a large group of machine tools, are very diverse. On a lathe can perform various types of turning: Grinding of cylindrical, conical, shaped surfaces, trim the ends, the segment, boring, and drilling and deployment of holes, threading and knurling corrugations, grinding, etc. Using special tools, the lathe can be perform milling, grinding, cutting teeth, and other types of treatment. On specialized lathes handle the wheel sets, couplings, pipes and other products. On a lathe in the process of cutting rotation workpiece, held in a chuck or clamping in the centers, carried out from the main motion drive, which provides a step or infinitely variable spindle speed to adjust to the desired cutting speed. Forward movement of the cutting tool is provided by the kinematic chain of feed movement, the first link of which – the spindle, the latter – Rack and Pinion gear (in turning) or kinematic pair spindle – nut masterbatch (by tapping on the screw-cutting lathe.) Setting up filing made with the gearbox.
The spindle assembly is performed rigid and vibration. Spindle bearings are usually are the bearings. In precision lathes are used hydrostatic bearings. At the front end of the spindle can be mounted faceplate or chuck, in which the fixed workpiece. Tailstock used in processing workpieces in the centers, as well as for securing a tool for drilling, reaming and deployment.